Thursday, April 20, 2017

Summary, Chapters 115 to 132

Wars are won, weddings are celebrated, and the story continues. 


A carrack, a three- or four-masted ocean-going sailing ship that was developed in the 14th and 15th centuries in Europe. Christopher Columbus’ ship the Santa María was a carrack.
 
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Summary to Chapter 115

Amadis has provoked a war with King Lisuarte. The King sent his daughter, Oriana, off in a fleet of ships to marry the Emperor of Rome, and Amadis and his friends attack the fleet, defeated it, and take Oriana to safety at Firm Island, which belongs to Amadis. Few people know that Oriana and Amadis are secretly in love. In fact, they even have a son named Esplandian, who has been raised since infancy by a holy hermit named Nasciano.

For the war, King Lisuarte has received aid and troops from the Emperor of Rome, among other allies. Amadis is supported by his old friends and by new friends he made during his years of travel as a knight errant. They have sent troops and supplies, and his army is led by his father, King Perion.

Meanwhile, Arcalaus the Sorcerer, who is a sworn enemy of Amadis, has raised his own army, allying with King Arabigo of Arabia. They plan to wait until the other two armies have exhausted themselves fighting, and then will swoop down and conquer them both.

After some hard battles, in which Amadis kills the Emperor of Rome, both sides have suffered great losses, but Lisuarte’s side is so weakened that he knows he will be defeated if another battle is held. At this time, the hermit Nasciano comes to make peace. With permission from Oriana, he tells Lisuarte that she and Amadis are married and that the boy Esplandian is his grandson. Nasciano then speaks to Amadis and Perion, and they all agree to peace.

Chapter 115

The armies of King Perion and King Lisuarte withdraw. Lisuarte has known for some time that Arcalaus and King Arabigo are present with an army, but he does not know where. As Arcalaus is about to attack Lisuarte’s troop, Esplandian and a friend are riding to Lisuarte to deliver a message. They see Arcalaus’s troops charging down a mountainside toward the remains of Lisuarte’s army, which is retreating as fast as possible to take refuge in a town.

Esplandian rides to the other camp and informs Perion and Amadis, and Amadis gathers up some troops and gallops off to rescue King Lisuarte, followed by Perion and the rest of the army.

Chapter 116

King Lisuarte and his men fight bravely, suffer bad casualties, and barely make it inside the walled town. They hold off their besiegers for the rest of the day. But they are few, and the town’s wall is in poor shape. They cannot resist for long.

Chapter 117

Amadis and his men ride all night, arrive at dawn, and attack. By then the troops of Arabigo and Arcalaus have entered the city. Lisuarte and his men are fighting to the death, when Amadis’s troops, cheering “Gaul! Gaul!” sweep in and are victorious. Arcalaus and King Arabigo are captured. King Lisuarte and Amadis greet each other with an embrace. King Perion arrives, and with Nasciano’s help, a lasting and joyful peace is negotiated.

Chapter 118

Everyone is told that Amadis and Oriana were secretly wed, and Amadis pledges to be a loyal and loving son-in-law to King Lisuarte. Esplandian is surprised and pleased to learn that Lisuarte and Perion are his grandfathers and Amadis is his father.

Chapter 119

King Lisuarte goes back to Great Britain to bring his wife and younger daughter to Firm Island for the wedding between Amadis and Oriana. The younger daughter will marry the new Emperor of Rome.

Chapter 120

King Perion and his troops return to Firm Island, where formal weddings are planned between Amadis and Oriana, and between other fine ladies and brave knights and royalty.

Chapter 121

Sir Bruneo of Bonamar, Angriote d’Estravaus, and Branfil sail to Gaul. There they pick up Amadis’ mother and brother to return with them to Firm Island for the wedding. While at sea, they encounter a ship carrying the Queen of Dacia, whose son-in-law has taken her kingdom by treachery. The three knights go off to right that wrong while the others continue to Firm Island.

Chapter 122

Sir Bruneo of Bonamar, Angriote d’Estravaus, and Branfil, with the Queen of Dacia, travel to her kingdom, and by their courage and superior military tactics, manage to retake it for the Queen and her two sons.

Chapter 123

King Lisuarte and his family arrive at Firm Island, to great joy and festivities. Then to everyone’s surprise, Urganda the Unrecognized, a sorceress who has helped Amadis often in the past, arrives in a huge smoking dragon as a ship.

Chapter 124

Amadis arranges weddings between worthy knights and fine ladies.

Chapter 125

On the morning before the wedding day, Oriana and some other ladies take the tests of the Enchanted Arch of Loyal Lovers and the Forbidden Chamber, which no one can enter. Only Oriana passes them both, breaking the spell, and the wedding feast is held in the beautiful Forbidden Chamber.

Chapter 126

Urganda the Unrecognized delivers a prophecy that Esplandian will be outstanding when he becomes a knight, then she sails off, but she leaves the dragon to serve Esplandian when the time comes. Kings, Queens, knights, ladies, and other nobles return home. Others make plans to take the kingdoms of Arabiga and Sansuena, whose leaders have been killed or captured in the most recent war.

Chapter 128

Now at peace at Firm Island, Amadis is out hunting one day when he is approached by Darioleta, a lady who serves his father and who has arrived in a boat. An evil giant has killed her son and taken her family prisoner. Amadis rushes off with her to rescue them. The giant is named Balan, and because Amadis had killed his father some time ago in a war, Balan wants to kill Amadis. Without revealing who he is, Amadis challenges the giant, and in a difficult fight, Amadis defeats Balan but does not kill him. The giant’s troops attack, and Amadis takes shelter among some rocks.

Chapter 129

When the giant recovers consciousness in his castle, he reminds everyone that he had promised that the knight would be safe, regardless of the outcome of the fight. He has Amadis brought to the castle, surrenders, and promises to make amends to Darioleta. He is shocked to learn that his opponent is Amadis, and to keep his word, Balan offers him his friendship.

Meanwhile, back at Firm Island, a friend of Amadis, a knight named Grasandor, goes in search of Amadis. He has a complicated adventure during his travels, and finally finds Amadis.

Chapter 130

Amadis and Grasandor set sail for Firm Island and on the way visit an island called the Peak of the Enchanting Damsel. The damsel is long gone, but she left behind an enchanted treasure, and Amadis wants to see if he can break the enchantment. On the island’s mountaintop, they realize the treasure is meant for Esplandian, but as they are leaving, they encounter Gandalin, Amadis’s former squire, now a knight. He is pursuing a knight who stole a damsel and who might be hiding on the island. They find him and the damsel, and Amadis manages to reconcile everyone.

When they return to Firm Island, Amadis is met by a lady who gets him to pledge to help her release her husband, who is imprisoned. Then he learns that her husband is Arcalaus. Against his will, he lets Arcalaus go, who promises to be his mortal enemy again, although eventually the sorcerer’s virtuous wife convinces him to live in peace.

Balan, meanwhile, now that he is a friend to Amadis and his family and friends, goes to help Sir (now King) Galaor and other kings and knights in their fight to conquer the kingdom of Arabigo.

Chapter 131

Balan is welcomed by Galaor and all the others, and Balan pledges his help.

Chapter 132

Balan persuades his old friend, King Arabigo, to surrender his kingdom. Then Balan and other knights go on to conquer the Kingdom of Sansuena, and the story returns to what has been happening to King Lisuarte.
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Tuesday, April 18, 2017

Chapter 132

Which tells of Agrajes’ reply to the giant Balan. 


[The city walls of Ávila, Spain. Photo by Elena F D.]
 

 
Agrajes answered him and said:

“My good lord Balan, I wish to respond to what ye said about your enmity with my lord and cousin Amadis, now that these lords and I have rendered thanks for what ye have promised, and if my answer does not conform to your will, accept it as a knight, for although I may not be your equal in matters of arms, perhaps by being older and having used them longer, I know more than you about how to use them.

“And I say that knights who with just cause enter into confrontations and in them do their duty without failing in anything that reason requires of them, thereby fulfilling what they swore to do, are to be much praised because they lack nothing in their will and deed. But those who seek to go beyond the limits of reason and into fantasy will be judged as more arrogant and delusional than strong and courageous by those who have achieved honor.

“It is well-known to all, and, my lord, it cannot be unknown to you, the manner of death of your father, for had fate consented to his daring to take King Lisuarte as he did, he would have been famous and praised to the heavens, and the dishonor and disdain for those who served and aided that King would have been placed in the abysm. And so ye should not have been surprised that Amadis, envious of the glory that your father hoped to reach, wished it for himself, as all good men should and ought to do.

“Thus a death such as this, considering that each man sought to do what he ought and with it to achieve great praise, should not be the cause for vengeance by anyone, for a great deal of honor is put forth to pardon deeds done faithfully.

“So, my lord, regarding your father, and regarding what happened with you and Amadis, no just cause for complaint can be found, since ye and he fully complied with everything knights ought to do. And if any blame can be made, it is to fate, which was pleased to favor him with more help and preference than to you.

“Finally, my dear friend, consider it good that while your honor has remained complete and faultless, ye have won the friendship of that noble knight and all these lords and brave knights that ye see here and many others that ye could see if ye found yourself to be in need of them.”

When the giant Balan heard this, he said:

“My lord Agrajes, although no admonishment was necessary for the satisfaction of my will, I thank you deeply for what ye have said to me because, although in this case it could have been excused, that is no reason for future cases to be given such an excuse. And ceasing to speak more of this as a forgotten thing of the past, it would be good if we were to reach agreement in how to bring an end to this confrontation with the courage and care that men must have who leave the safety of their homes to conquer distant lands.”

Sir Galvanes said:

“My good lord, these knights should go to their lodgings, for it is time to sup, and ye should rest tonight. Tomorrow, when your tents have been put up and your men settled, then with your advice the order shall be given for what should be done.”

And so all those lords went to their camps, and Sir Galvanes and King Galaor remained with the giant, and that night he supped pleasantly with them in the great and fine tent ye have heard of. And when supper was over, the King went to his tents and they remained and slept in fine beds.

When morning came, the giant told Sir Galvanes that he wished to mount and circle the city to see how it was laid out and where it would be best to fight. Sir Galvanes made this known to King Galaor, and the both went with him. Because of the city’s large population, it had many great towers and fortified walls. It was the capital of all that great realm including the Islands of Landas, and the main residence of the kings as they ruled in succession and strove to make it grow in population and to fortify it as much as they could. Thus it was exceptionally grand and strong.

When they had examined it, Balan said to them:

“My lords, how do ye think we can undertake such a great thing as this?”

Sir Galaor said:

“There is nothing greater nor stronger in the world than a man’s heart, and if those inside are courageous, I greatly doubt that we could take the city by force. But since whenever there are many men there always comes great discord, especially when fortune goes against them, and weakness comes quickly to those in discord, I have no doubt that just as other impregnable places are lost for this reason, this city shall be lost.”

As they were speaking of these and other things, all three went together to the encampments of Sir Cuadragante and Sir Bruneo and their other companions, where they were considering where they could best launch an attack. When they had neared Agrajes’ tents, the good and courageous Enil came to them and said:

“My lord Balan, Agrajes asks you to see King Arabigo, whom I hold prisoner in my tent and who wishes to speak with you, for when he was told about your arrival, he sent with great affection and love to ask Agrajes to give him permission and to beg you to see him.”

The giant told him:

“Good knight, I am very happy to do so, and it may be that this visit will obtain better results than great confrontations from which more is expected.”

So they all went to Enil’s tent. King Galaor and Sir Galvanes left to join Sir Bruneo, and the giant dismounted and entered the room where King Arabigo was, which was decorated with fine carpets and drapery, and he was dressed nobly, for Agrajes had ordered him to be served as a king. But he wore such strong and heavy shackles that he could not take a single step. When the giant saw him, he knelt before him and wished to kiss his hands, but the King pulled him close and embraced him, weeping, and said:

“My friend Balan, how do I seem to thee? Am I that great king whom thy father and thou often visited, finding me in court accompanied by high princes and knights and my other royal friends, as thou often didst, expecting to conquer and reign over a large part of the world? Truly, I rather think thou wouldst consider me a lowly man, a prisoner, captive, dishonored, placed under the power of my enemies, as thou well seest. And what brings the greatest pain to my sad heart is that those from whom I hoped for the greatest aid, such as thee and other mighty giants whom I considered friends, instead I see coming to put an end and finish to my total destruction.”

Having said that, he could no longer speak due to the many tears that overcame him. Balan told him:

“Manifest it is to me, for my eyes had seen it so, that it was true what thou, good King Arabigo, have said about seeing thee well accompanied and honored with much preparation and expectation to conquer great realms. And if now I see thee so changed and altered, do not doubt that my spirit has also felt a great alteration, because although my estate is much different in greatness compared to thine, I do not fail to feel the cruel and heavy blows of fortune, for thou already knowest, good King, how the very courageous Amadis of Gaul killed my father Madanfabul.

“And when I most hoped vengeance to come for that death, my adverse and contrary fortune wished that by this same Amadis I was defeated and subjugated by force of arms, he having the liberty to give me death or life. And because the great degree of anguish and sadness that subjugates thee does not put thee in a situation to listen to such a long account about it as I could tell thee, be it enough to know that by being defeated by he whom I so much wished to defeat and kill with my own hands if I could have, I have come here where with such legitimate cause that I could match or exceed thy tears with those my presence could cause thee to spill, for no less than thou would I need consolation.

“But knowing the great and varied turns the world takes, and how discretion is given to follow reason, I undertook to befriend the man who was my greatest mortal enemy, for I could not do otherwise since I had just cause and left no obligations undone by weakness. And if thou, noble King, takest my counsel, thou shalt do so because I know very well it would be good for thee, and I, as he whom in rigor and discord must be thine enemy, could be in concord thy loyal friend.”

He, when he heard this, said:

“What concord could I make over losing my kingdom?”

“To content thyself,” the giant said, “with the best thou couldst obtain.”

“Would it not be better,” he said, “to die than to see myself diminished and dishonored?”

“Because death takes away all hope,” Balan said, “and often with life and the passage of time desires are satisfied and great losses are remedied, it is a much greater advantage to procure life than to desire death among those who can make from their losses greater advantage than dishonor.”

“Balan, my friend,” the King said, “I wish to be guided by thy counsel, and I place everything that thou seest to do about it in thy hands. And I ask thee that although outside thou provest to be my enemy in my absence, when thou comest to my presence in this prison thou seest and advisest me as a friend.”

“So I shall do,” the giant said, “without fail.”

Then he bid him farewell, took Enil, and went to Sir Bruneo of Bonamar’s tent, where he found King Galaor, Agrajes, Sir Galvanes, and many other knights of great estate, who received him and welcomed him with much pleasure. He told them that because he had talked with King Arabigo about things they ought to know of, they should decide if it was necessary to have some other men there. Agrajes told him it would be good to call for Sir Cuadragante, Sir Brian of Monjaste, and Angriote d’Estrauvas, and so they came with other knights of great renown.

Then, the giant told them everything that had happened with King Arabigo, leaving nothing out. Although Balan pledged to remain and help those men through life and death, he thought that if King Arabigo would be content with one of the most distant of the Islands of Landas and would deliver the rest without any more loss of men, such an agreement and ceasing of hostilities would be good, especially since the Kingdom of Sansuena was still to be won, where its troops and fortresses would prove difficult.

The lords thanked the giant sincerely for what he had said, and they considered him very sensible, for they would not have thought nor believed a man of his lineage would have such discretion. And that was reasonable to think, because previously giants’ great and oversized arrogance had left no place where discretion and reason could find a home. But the difference between Balan and other giants was that his mother Madasima was so very noble, as this story has told, and having only this one son from her husband Madanfabul, she worked very hard, although against the will of her husband, who was vile and arrogant, to raise him under the discipline of a great and wise man she brought from Greece. With that upbringing and with the one provided by his mother, who was very noble in all things, he became so gentle and discreet that few men could have been more reasonable than him, nor have had such veracity.

Those lords reached an agreement among themselves, and they decided that if what that giant had said could be put into effect, it would be an advantage and much relief to them, although King Arabigo would retain a portion of that kingdom. They told Balan that knowing the love and goodwill he had come there with and discussing their situation, rather by him than by anyone else they would conform their wills to make a treaty with the King.

Here it should be noted that if in great divisions there are no people of goodwill who seek to find a remedy, the result is a recrudescence of deaths, prisoners, theft, and other things of infinite evil.

When the giant heard this, he spoke with King Arabigo, and while the recounting of the agreements and discussions must be omitted both for their length and to avoid straying from the purpose of the story, it was agreed that King Arabigo would relinquish that great city and the surrounding territory within his realm, and of the three Landas Islands, he would take for himself the most distant and northerly, which was called Liconia, and he would be its King. The other islands would be relinquished with the rest, and Sir Bruneo would become the King of Arabia.

This was carried out and approved by King Arabigo’s nephew, who was defending the kingdom, as ye have heard, and by all the city’s other leaders, relinquishing everything as had been agreed. King Arabigo was freed, who, with great fatigue and anguish in his heart, left by sea to the island of Liconia, and Sir Bruneo was proclaimed King of Arabigo with great pleasure and rejoicing, both by his own supporters and by his opponents, who when they came to know of his excellence and great courage, expected to receive many honors and protection from him.

When this was done, as the story has recounted, for a brief time they remained there to rest and relax with King Bruneo, organize their battalions, and do all the other things that would be necessary for their journey. Then they left on their way to the town of Califan, which was the closest to their camp.

But the people of Sansuena, when they learned the city of Arabia had been taken and King Arabigo had reached an agreement with those troops, feared what it meant, and they united a great many troops, both knights and footmen, because that kingdom was great and the forces in it numerous and well-armed and experienced at war, which arrogant and scandalous kings always have for their use in frequent confrontations. When they saw so many men united, their hearts grew with great arrogance and daring. They organized their battalions led by captains who were the leading men of the kingdom, and they left to meet their enemies before they could reach the town of Califan.

The two sides met each other and there was a very brave and cruel battle, and many men on both sides were harmed. During it occurred amazing feats of arms, and many knights and other men were killed. But what those outstanding knights and the brave and valiant giant did there could not in any way be fully recounted, and both by their great deeds and by the courage of their brave hearts the men of Sansuena were defeated and destroyed in such a way that most of them were killed or wounded in the field, and the others so beaten that even in places like fortresses they did not dare to defend themselves. And so Sir Cuadragante and all the other lords and men, although many were dead or injured, remained and controlled the battlefield without encountering any defenders or resistance.

If this story does not tell you more extensively the great acts of knighthood and the brave and mighty deeds that occurred in all those conquests and battles, the reason for it is because this story is about Amadis, and if the great deeds are not by him, there is no cause to tell about those of others except almost in summary. By any other means not only would the writing, being long and prolix, make its readers angry and annoyed, but the readers could not rightly follow what happened to both sides. So with greater reason it must fulfill its main purpose, which is the courageous and valiant knight Amadis, rather than dwelling on others who regarding the story should only be mentioned.

For this reason, nothing more will be said, except that when this great and dangerous battle had been won, soon the great realm of Sansuena was subjugated, so the places where the weakest wills had no hope for any aid, and the strongest were obtained by great combat, and all were required to take Sir Cuadragante as their lord.

But now we shall leave them very content and satisfied by their victories, and we must tell you the story about King Lisuarte, who has not been mentioned for a long while.

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Tuesday, April 11, 2017

Chapter 131

How Agrajes, Sir Cuadragante, and Sir Bruneo of Bonamar, with many other knights, came to see the giant Balan, and what happened. 


[From the Roman du Roy Meliadus de Leonnoys, produced in Naples, Italy, in about 1352. King Meliadus was the father of Tristan in the Arthurian legend. At the British Library.]
 

 
When they learned the giant had arrived, Agrajes, Sir Cuadragante, and Sir Bruneo of Bonamar took Angriote d’Estravaus, Sir Gavarte of the Fearful Valley, Palomir, Sir Brian of Monjaste, and many other knights of high esteem who were there to help win those realms, as ye have heard, and they all went to the encampment of King Galaor and Sir Galvanes, where the giant was lodging. They found him in Sir Galvanes’ tent, which was as fine and well-worked as any emperor or king could have had, and which he had acquired from his wife Madasima, who had inherited it from her father Famongomadan.

Each year, Famongomadan had ordered the tent be erected in a field in front of the Castle of the Boiling Lake, and he had his son Basagante sit on a fine platform with all his relatives, who were numerous and who obeyed Famongomadan like a lord for his great might and wealth. His vassals and many other people whom he had subjugated by force of arms kissed his hand as King of Great Britain. With that thought he had sent word to King Lisuarte to ask for Oriana to wed his son Basagante, and because he would not give her, Famongomadan had initiated a very cruel war at the time that Amadis killed them both when he rescued Leonoreta, Oriana’s sister, and the ten knights who were being held prisoner with her, as the second book of this story has recounted at length.

When these knights arrived, the giant was disarmed and wearing a cape of yellow silk finely decorated with golden roses. And as he was large and handsome and in the flower of maturity, he seemed attractive to everyone, and even more so after they had spoken, because they knew the coarse character of giants, who by nature were very disagreeable and arrogant and not given to obey reason, and they had not expected that any giant could be as completely different as Balan was. They appreciated him much more for this than for his great valor, although many of them knew the great feats at arms he had done, because great courage without good manners and discretion is often abhorrent.

As they were all together in that great tent, the giant looked at them and they seemed so outstanding that he could not believe that anywhere else there could have been so many and such fine knights. And when he saw that they had become quiet, he said:

“If ye are surprised that I have come here to your aid unexpectedly, since ye had very little hope or prospect for it, so am I. Truly, I would not by any means have believed that I would find a reason to cease to be your mortal enemy and opponent until my death. But as the execution of plans is in the hand of God rather than in the hand of those who wish to carry them out with rigor, among the many mighty and difficult battles that happened to my honor I was overcome during one that constrained my intentions at the start and in the end changed my own will to hold in honor what for all the days of my life I had considered dishonor to the point of requiring vengeance.

“When the thing I had most desired in this world was fulfilled, then my time of great ire and rigor and severity was ended and satisfied not by the way I had expected but by the way my most contrary fate was pleased to take. As ye know, I am the son of the valiant and courageous knight Madanfabul, lord of the Island of the Vermilion Tower, whom Amadis of Gaul, when he was called Beltenebros, killed in the battle fought between King Lisuarte and King Cildadan.

“And as I am the son of such an honorable father and was utterly obligated to avenge his death, never could I forget the deep desire of the way to carry this out: to take the life of the man who took it from my father. And when I had the least hope of that, fortune, along with the bravery of that knight, brought him to my grasp, arriving alone in my realm with no one to aid him, and by him and his great fortitude I was defeated and treated with the greatest courtesy by the man in whom fortitude and courtesy are fulfilled more than anyone alive.

“As a result, the great and mortal enmity I had felt became even greater friendship and true love, which has given me cause to come, as ye see, knowing that there might be a need for troops in this army, and believing that the honor and advantage for you will in its greater part come to him.”

Then he told them from the beginning everything that had happened to him with Amadis, and the battle they fought, and all the rest that occurred, leaving nothing out, as this story has recounted to you. And finally he told them that until that war was over, he would not leave their company, and when it was ended, he wished to go immediately to Firm Island, as he had promised Amadis.

All those lords took great pleasure in hearing what he said because, although Gandalin had told them how Amadis had fought with the giant and defeated him, they did not know the reason for it until he had recounted it. And they were very pleased by his arrival, both for the worth of his personage and for the numerous and very good men of war he had brought with him, which they needed, given those they had lost in previous confrontations. They gave him great thanks for the good will with which they had been offered out of love for Amadis.

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Tuesday, April 4, 2017

Chapter 130 [part 5 of 5]

[What Balan did as soon as he could leave his bed.] 


[Knights with a lance and a crossbow, page 361r from the Codex Manesse, made in Germany in 1304. At the Universitätisbliothek Heidelberger.]
 


But now the story shall cease to speak of Amadis and Grasandor and shall recount what was done by the giant Balan of the Island of the Vermilion Tower. The story says that two weeks after Amadis and Grasandor left the Island of the Vermilion Tower, where they had left the giant Balan injured, he arose from his bed and ordered many precious jewels be given to Darioleta and her husband and daughter, and a very fine ship in which they could leave. And he sent with them his son Bravor as he had promised Amadis.

Immediately after they had left, he had a great fleet prepared with his ships, of which he had many, and other ships he had taken from those who had traveled there, and he had them loaded with weapons and men and all the provisions they would hold, and he went out to sea with very favorable weather.

He traveled so fast without any difficulty that ten days later he arrived at the port of a small village called Licrea in the realm of King Arabigo. There he learned about the lords who had the great city of Arabia very well besieged, especially after Sir Galaor, King of Sobradisa, arrived with Sir Galvanes. He immediately had all his men disembark with their horses and arms, and the crossbowmen and archers, and all the other equipment for an encampment. He left the fleet with enough guards to keep it safe and went directly to the place where he knew that King Sir Galaor and Sir Galvanes were.

When they learned he was coming from the giant’s messengers, they and a great many companions mounted and went out to receive him. The giant arrived with his very good company of men and himself, wearing fine armor riding a handsome large horse, and few could have looked as good and handsome as he appeared in his grandeur.

They already knew what had happened between him and Amadis, for Gandalin had told them. Sir Galaor placed Sir Galvanes ahead, although he was not equal in rank, because he was much older and because of the great lineage from which he came and for his fine personality: Amadis and his brothers and Agrajes had always treated him with great courtesy for those things. The giant did not know him for he had never seen him, although he knew a great deal about everything he had done because Madasima, Galvanes’ wife, was a niece of Balan’s mother, who was also named Madasima, as ye have been told.

And when he arrived, the giant said:

“My good lord, are ye Sir Galaor?”

“No,” he said, “I am Sir Galvanes, who greatly esteems you.”

Then the giant embraced him and said:

“My lord Sir Galvanes, given how we are of the same family, we should not have let so much time pass without meeting, but I had an enemy with whom ye had a great friendship, which gave cause to that delay. But now this has been ended by the hand of he who in discretion and courage has no equal.”

King Galaor arrived laughing and with good will embraced him and said:

“My good friend and lord, I am he for whom ye ask.”

Balan looked at him and said:

“Truly your appearance is a good witness to that, for ye resemble he who has given me cause to wish to know you.”

The giant said that because Amadis and Galaor greatly resembled each other in so many ways that they were often mistaken for each other, except that Sir Galaor was a little taller and Amadis a bit broader.

This done, they rode with King Galaor between them and went to their encampment, and Sir Galvanes brought Balan to his tent while his lodging was being prepared, where both of them were served as they should and ought to be.

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